Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+) is a universal cellular electron transporter, coenzyme, and signaling molecule present in all cells of the body and is essential for cell function and viability. Along with NAD+, its reduced (NADH) and phosphorylated forms (NADP+ and NADPH) are also important. NAD+ and its redox partner NADH are vital for energy (ATP) production in all parts of cellular respiration: glycolysis in the cytoplasm and the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain in the mitochondria.
NAD+ levels are highest in newborns and steadily decline with increasing chronological age. After age 50, they are approximately half of the levels seen in younger adults. NAD+ replacement therapy may promote mitochondrial health and homeostasis, genome stability, neuroprotection, healthy aging, and longevity and may aid in treating addiction.